Instrumental Constraints

WALES HAMP Radar HAMP Radiometer SMART** specMACS Bahamas A2D wind lidar 2micron wind lidar
Responsible People
Martin Wirth (DLR-IPA), Andreas Fix (DLR-IPA), Silke Groß (DLR-IPA), Axel Amediek (DLR-IPA)
Lutz Hirsch (MPI-H), Friedhelm Jansen (MPI-H), Martin Hagen (DLR-IPA), Florian Ewald (DLR-IPA)
Heike Konow (U Hamburg), Mario Mech (U Köln)
Kevin Wolf (U Leipzig), André Ehrlich (U Leipzig), Manfred Wendisch (U Leipzig)
Tobias Kölling (LMU-MIM), Tobias Zinner (LMU-MIM), Hans Grob (LMU-MIM), Bernhard Mayer (LMU-MIM)
Christian Mallaun (DLR-FX), Martin Zöger (DLR-FX),
Oliver Reitebuch (DLR-IPA), Christian Lemmerz (DLR-IPA), Engelbert Nagel (DLR-IPA), Oliver Lux (DLR-IPA), Uwe Marksteiner (DLR-IPA)
Benjamin Witschas (DLR-IPA),Stefan Rahm (DLR-IPA)
Number of Operators 1-2 1-2 1 0 1 1
Instrument Operation
No operation below 6 km possible
Operation between 6 and 13.7 km (< 6 km saturation of the radar receiver, > 13.7 km no ground-echo)
Only daylight Operation, avoid solar elevation<15°, operation time: 0730-1600 UTC
Only daylight Operation, as high above clouds as possible
* swath in 1.5km: 0.9 km (spec Macs); 2.1 km (2D cam)
* swath in 5.0km: 3.0 km (spec Macs); 7.0 km (2D cam)
* Reduced accuracy during dust and salt contamination by high aerosol load during low level flights
* Reduced data quality in precipitation and clouds (water/ice in pressure tube)
* no data 1.5 km below aircraft
* limited number of 16-18 range gates (vert. res. 0.3/0.6/1.2 km)
* to be addapted to science obj.
* first obs 45 min after take-off
* no operation< 5km (eye-safety)
* obs after 15 min
* no data 500 m below aircraft
Flight Planning Requirements
Preferably straight legs
Min FL 200 (6 km)
Max FL 450 (13.7 km)
straight flights prefered (small pitch and roll)
straight legs (min. 5 min)
Straight legs
dropsondes fom HALO beneficial for profiles of temperature and hor. wind vector
* best performance in a distance of 2 km to cloud top
* no measurements in clouds
prefered above all clouds above clouds (min 500 ft)
ideally no clouds above
avoid flying within or 1-2 km above cirrus clouds
at high flight level or close to the aircraft are unfavorable an prevent wind profiles
Instrument Calibration
cirles over the sea with 10° bank (15 min/circle) during 1-2 research flights (calm and rough sea)
at ground, before each research flight (90 min), with liquid nitrogen, clear sky dropsondes for validation
* Radiation box (4x2min legs), clear sky above
* regular cal at ground (between flights), about 1h
* 1 double flight to Kangelussuaq needed for A2D cal over Greenland ice sheet
* scan-pattern if situation allows (retrieve hor. wind vector)
at the beginning of the campaign: several min with vis to ground at constant FL (~FL300) to determine Installation position
Satellite Overpasses Cloudsat, GPM GPM A-Train (AQUA/TERRA) A-Train (AQUA/TERRA) ASCAT
Coordination with French Falcon
Intercomparison with LNG (Leandre New Generation)
Intercomparison with RASTA 95 GHz cloud Radar